Chickpea is one of the most important food legumes in the world. It originated in middle east and is cultivated on large scale in India, Ethiopia, Mexico, Argentina, Chile and Australia. Chickpea is widely appreciated as a health food. Chickpea is of two types, desi and kabuli. The seeds of desi chickpea are small in size and yellow to dark brown in colour.The grains of kabuli chickpea on other hand are large and attractive and creamish white in colour.
Chickpea, being a winter season crop requires cool climate for its growth and development, while it requires relatively high temperture at maturity. Severe cold and frost at the time of flowering cause flower drop. The optimum temperature for its growth ranges from 15 - 250 C. Soil temperature of 300 C or above adversly affects the nitrogen fixation process by the rhizobia. The presence of deep rooted system makes chickpea a preferred crop in dry tracts with annual rainfall of 60-100 cm. Areas with moderate rainfall are considered suitable for chickpea cultivation.