Lentil is a bushy annual herbaceous plant of the legume family, grown of its lens-shaped seeds. Lentil plants are typically short, but can range from 20 to 75 (cm) in height, depending on growing conditions and bear self-pollinated flowers. Lentil seed colors range from yellow to red- orange to green, brown and black. Seed size varies and is sold in many forms, with or without the seed coat, whole or split. It has shallow root system with nodules on surface. Mostly, lentil is classified into two groups by seed size. The large seeded type has a seed size average more than 25 gram/1000 seeds. The small-seeded type has a seed size which averages less than 25 gram/1000 seeds.

Lentil is grown in different agro-climatic conditions from terai region of Himalayas to central India and from northeastern region to northwestern plains of the country. Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Chhatisgarh and Jharkhand state are the major lentil producing states of the country. Lentil is primarily grown as rainfed crop.